Practices that constitute unfair methods of competition or unfair or deceptive acts or practices. They include misrepresentation, twisting, rebating, deceptive or false advertising, inequitable claim settlement, and unfair discrimination.
International usage tends to mirror terminology in US legislation, which applies the term to export-related practices that may be subject to countervailing duties (i.e., export subsidies by foreign governments) and antidumping duties (i.e., dumping by foreign firm), as well as certain anticompetitive practices such as discriminatory shipping arrangements. The term is not normally applied to the range of import-related non-tariff barriers, even though discriminatory elements may be involved. Determination of "unfairness" is left to administrative proceedings in the ~ importing country, subject to procedural requirements of the relevant GATT Codes. See competitive policies and practices ( Sec .II ).
Unfair trade practice measures include retaliatory actions against a country that unfairly impedes imports. One type of unfair practice is violations of intellectual property, such as patent, trademark and copyright infringements, which are protected in the U.S. under Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930.