Definitions for

**"Power Factor"****Related Terms:**Kva, True power, Apparent power, Kilovolt-ampere, Electric power, Reactive power, Real power, Electrical power, Wattage, Active power, Load, Wattmeter, Volt-ampere, Power factor correction, Power dissipation, Inverter, Power supply, Var, Volt-amperes, Pfc, Rated power, Output power, Watts, Switching power supply, Power conditioner, Watt, Power surge, Alternator, Generating capacity, Parallel operation, Three-phase power, Supply current, Peak power, Inrush current, Primary, Standby current, Power output, Uninterruptible power supply, Mains, Brownout, Generating unit, Ups , Current source, Transformer, Input voltage, Milliamps, Generator , Voltage multiplier, Distributed generation, Generators

A blanket term, used to describe various measurements of the percentage of the input current available after passing through the system. See Total Power Factor, Displacement Power Factor.

The inefficient use of electrical power; the ratio of watts to volt-amperes.

The ratio of resistance to impedance. The ratio of the actual power of an alternating current to apparent power. Mathematically, the cosine of the angle between the voltage applied and the current resulting.

The ballast input power divided by the product of the ballast supply and ballast supply current.

The ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) expressed as a decimal or as a percentage. If an electric appliance has a high power factor (i.e., close to 1), it requires relatively little reactive power as compared to real power. Conversely, if an electric appliance has a low power factor (i.e., close to 0), it requires a relatively large amount of reactive power as compared to real power. A low power factor appliance uses valuable utility production capacity, requiring the utility to put additional investment into generation, transmission, and distribution facilities.

The ratio of actual power used (watts) to the power apparently being drawn from the line (volt-amperes).

The ratio of the average power and the apparent volt-amperes.

The fraction of power actually used by a customer's electrical equipment compared to the total apparent power supplied, usually expressed as a percentage. A power factor indicates how far a customer's electrical equipment causes the electric current delivered at the customer's site to be out of phase with the voltage.

The ratio of true ac input power to the apparent ac input power. If both voltage and current are sinusoidal, power factor is the cosine of the phase angle between them.

The ratio between the actual power delivered by an electronic circuit and the apparent power in the circuit. This can be divided into two components: displacement power factor (or phase shift power factor) and distortion power factor. Often, only the phase shift aspect of power factor is meant when power factor is mentioned. Power factor values can range from 0 to 1. The ideal power factor is 1.

A measure of the angular displacement between the voltage and the current in a supply system. ranges in vale from 0-1 (Cosine of the angle between V & I). Greatly affects the performance of the installation, unnecessary current may be drawn if a poor power factor is present. Most supply authorities charge users high penalty charges if the installation power factor is below 0.9. A low power factor is caused by the presence of inductive loads in the installation. Can be corrected using power factor correction.

Ratio of total watts to total root-mean-square volt-amperes, i.e., the active power to the apparent power.

The ratio of the active power to the apparent power. Power factor is given by cos 0, where 0 is the phase angle of the load.

This is the ratio of power actually used in an electric circuit, the real power (expressed in kW), to the power that is apparently being drawn from the power source, the apparent power (expressed in kVA).

The ratio of true power (watts) to apparent power (volts x amperes).

The ratio of true power to apparent power in an AC circuit. In power conversion technology, power factor is used in conjunction with describing the AC input current to the power supply.

This is a measure of how effectively electricity is being used by your site. The power factor of a site can be used to help analyse its overall energy efficiency and is shown in the standard reports available to Meridian Energy customers.

The relationship between working (active) power and total power consumed (apparent power).

The ration of watts to volt amperes in a circuit. Expressed as % watts / VA.

In an electrical circuit, the ratio of the power in watts to the product of the r.m.s.. values of voltage and current. AS Wiring Rules and EMI regulations require correction to at least 0.8.

The ratio of active power (in watts) to apparent power (in rms volt-amperes), power factor is a measure of how effectively an electric load converts power into useful work. Power factor (PF) is calculated using the equation PF = (active power) / [(rms voltage) x (rms current)]. Phase displacement and current distortion both reduce power factor. A power factor of 0.9 or greater indicates a high power factor ballast.

In a AC circuit the ratio of the real power to the apparent power.

The ratio of real power to apparent power to determine how much of the current contributes real power to the load. A power factor of one (i.e., 1.00) indicates that all current is contributing power to the load. The importance of power factors close to unity is to actually deliver the power to the load (i.e., maximize the amount of usable power from the least amount of input line current), instead of having the power reflected back to the source.

The ratio of total power input (in watts) to total volt-ampere input.

The ratio of the real power to the apparent power in an electrical circuit. The most efficient use of mains energy occurs when the circuits power factor is high, with 1.00PF being the ideal. Low power factors can be the result of reactive and nonlinear load elements.

A measure of the phase difference between voltage and current drawn by an electrical device, such as a ballast or motor. Power factors can range from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 being ideal. Power factor is sometimes expressed as a percent. Incandescent lamps have power factors close to 1.0 because they are simple "resistive" loads. The power factor of a fluorescent and HID lamp system is determined by the ballast used. "High" power factor usually means a rating of 0.9 or greater. Power companies may penalize users for using low power factor devices.

The ratio of real power, measured in KW, to apparent power, measured in KVA, for any given load and time, generally expressed as a percentage.

The ratio of active power to apparent power: kW/kVA.

The cosine of the angle between the current and voltage waveforms produced by the inverter is the power factor. For resistive loads, the power factor will be 1.0 but for inductive loads, the most common load in residential systems, the power factor will drop, sometimes as low as 0.5. Power factor is determined by the load, not the inverter.

A method of determining the quality of energy being used at your facility. Facilities using large amounts of uncompensated fluorescent lighting or ac induction motors often have lower power factors. Power factors are measured in percentage, and customers are often billed if the power factor drops below a certain threshold, like 85% (and sometimes credited for higher power factors). Power Factor problems can be fixed using capacitors.

This is a measurement of electricity deflected at the supply point. The industry standard is 0.9 (i.e. 90% efficient). If the power factor drops below this point it can be corrected by the installation of capacitors.

The ratio of real power (kW) actually used in an electrical circuit to apparent power (kVA), the power being drawn from the power source

The ratio between Watts and Volt-Amperes. This ratio is generally expressed as a decimal fraction. A power factor of 1.00 is unity.

The ratio of ac power actually used by a piece of electrical equipment compared to the total apparent ac power supplied; a high apparent power yields a low power factor--meaning the equipment is using a higher current than it actually needs to satisfy its real power requirement; dc circuits always exhibit a power factor of 1.00 (i.e., real input power equals apparent input power).

A measure of how effectively a ballast converts current and voltage into usable power to operate the lamps. A power factor of 0.9 or greater indicates a high power factor ballast.

Ratio between the active power P supplied to a load and the apparent power S supplied to said load by an AC power supply.

The ratio of real power (watts) to apparent power (volt-amps) in an AC circuit. Displacement power factor is the ratio of fundamental watts to fundamental RMS volts times

The ratio between true power (in watts) and apparent power (in VA). The higher the value, the less energy an electrical appliance consumes.

The ratio of actual power used in a circuit to the apparent power. Power factor is the measure of the fraction of current in phase with the voltage and contributing to average power.

Ratio of true power (kW) to apparent power (kVA).

The ratio of total real power in watts to the apparent power (root-mean-square volt amperes).

The ratio of AC volts x amps through a device to AC wattage of the device. A device such as a ballast that measures 120 volts, 1 amp, and 60 watts has a power factor of 50% (volts x amps = 120 VA, therefore 60 watts/120 VA = 0.5). Some utilities charge customers for low power factor systems.

Power factor is the cosine of the angle between the active power (kW) and apparent power (kVA) in a circuit.

The ratio of the actual power of an alternating or pulsating current, as measured by a wattmeter, to the apparent power, as indicated by ammeter and voltmeter readings. The power factor of an inductor, capacitor, or insulator is an expression of their losses.

Technically, the cosine of the phase angle between the circuit voltage and current waveforms. Since phase angles are difficult to measure, power factor is usually derived by measuring power or impedance. Power factor is the ratio of active power to apparent power (watts divided by volt-amperes). Power factor has no units, but is commonly expressed as a percentage. For example, if active power is 96 kW and apparent power is 100 kW, the power factor is 96%.

A measure of the effectiveness with which an electrical device converts volt-amperes to watts; devices with power factors (0.90) are "high power factor" devices.

This is the ratio of active power (watts) to apparent power (VA). Power Factor has a value somewhere between zero and one. The distribution utility has to provide equipment that will carry Amps, and if the Power Factor is poor (less than about 0.9), the distribution network is inefficient. This inefficiency is passed onto the customer as higher charges.

A measurement of the time phase difference between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. It is represented by the cosine of the angle of this phase difference. For an angle of 0 degrees, the power factor is 100% and the volt/amperes of the circuit are equal to the watts. (This is the ideal and an unrealistic situation.) Power factor is the ratio of Real Power-KW to total KVA or the ratio of actual power (watts) to apparent power (volt-amperes).

A Power Factor is a measure of how effectively electricity is being used on a site. Certain types of equipment cause poor power factors, which reduces the capacity of the network to supply power. Distribution companies will charge customers for this through reactive power charges.

The ratio of active power (kW) to total power (kVA): A low power factor indicates a high level of reactive power (kVAR) that can waste electricity. Many utilities charge a penalty for low-power factors. Installing capacitors can correct low-power factors.

The ratio of real power to apparent power. Power factor will be "leading" or "lagging" depending on which way the load shifts the current’s phase with respect to the voltage’s phase. Inductive loads cause current to lag behind voltage, while capacitive loads cause current to lead voltage.

This is a measure of the relationship of the voltage wave to the current's wave, in AC power. A power factor of 1 indicates current and voltage are in phase and power is equal to the simple product of volts x amps (no reactive power). When Power Factor is "bad," less than 1, current and voltage peak at different times (are out of phase), and less power is actually available to the load than the product of volts x amps. The product of the volts x amps in a reactive circuit is called "apparent power" and is measured in "volt-amps" or VA. The "true power" that is useable by the load is measured in watts. The ratio of apparent power to true power is called the power factor.

The ratio of true input power to apparent input power in an AC input system.

is the ratio of Watts to VA, or True Power divided by Apparent Power. This can be expressed as a decimal or percentage, i.e.: PF=0.75 or PF=75%. True Power is never greater than Apparent Power, so the Power Factor is never greater than 1. Power Factor may also be expressed as Cosine F where F is an angle between 0 and 90.

In an alternating current system the voltage and current do not always reverse at the same instant in time. That is, they are not always "in phase. "The current can be considered as being divided into two components: one in phase with the voltage and one out of phase with the voltage. The power factor of a circuit is the ratio of the in phase current to the total current. Usually expressed as a percentage. Power is the product of volts, ampere, and power factor.

The ratio of active power (watts) to apparent power (VA). Most computer related equipment has a power factor between .6 and .8. Power factor is the spread between VA and wattage. VA x power factor = watts. See formulas.

The ratio of real power to apparent power. Watts divided by VA. Most power supplies used in communication and computer equipment have a power factor of 0.9 lag (PF =0.9 lag)

The ratio of an appliance's actual power in watts to the apparent power measured in volt-amps (VA). As an example, a 400-W appliance with a power factor of 0.8 would require a power source of 500 VA to drive it properly. This is why loads with poor power factors need larger-than-expected generators to power them.

The ratio of total real power, (W) to the total apparent power in volt-amperes (VA); W/VA.

The ratio of actual power (kW) to apparent power (kVA).

Power Factor is the ratio of watts (W) to voltamperes (VA).

The fraction of power actually used by a customer's electrical equipment, compared to the total apparent power supplied, usually expressed as a percentage. Power factors apply only to alternating current circuits; direct current circuits always exhibit a power factor of 100 percent.

A measure of the phase difference between voltage and current on alternating current circuits. Power factors can range from 0 to 1.0 with 1.0 being ideal. Power factor is sometimes expressed as a percent. A high power factor means that an electrical system or device is utilizing power efficiently. Incandescent lamps always have power factors close to 1.0 because they are simple "resistive" loads. The power factor of a discharge lamp system is determined by the ballast used. "High" power factor usually means a rating of 0.9 or greater. The power factor of core and coil "electromagnetic ballasts may be as low as 0.5 - 0.6.

The ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (KVA). Some technical and electrical suppliers will request power in KVA and others will request power in kW. The power factor is 0.8, or KVA * 0.8 = kW.

It is the ratio of actual power being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or kilowatts (KW), to the power which is apparently being drawn from the line, expressed in voltamperes or kilovoltamperes. Power factor values range from 0 to 1.0, where the optimum value of 1.0 indicates that no power is being lost due to the reactive properties of the equipment or network.

Power factor is the ratio between true power (Watts) and apparent power (Volt Amps)

The cosine of the phase angle between the voltage and the current waveforms in an ac circuit. Used as a designator for inverter performance. A power factor of 1 indicates current and voltage are in phase and power is equal to the product of volt-amperes. (no reactive power).

Ratio of true input power to the apparent power (rms voltage x rms current) in AC circuits. This power is generally considered to be wasted, but can be corrected for.

The ratio of true power to apparent power in an alternating current or a ratio of resistance to impedance.

A number that gives a value to the phase difference between the current and voltage for the AC power being delivered to the site.

Watts divided by volt amps, KW divided by KVA. Power factor: leading and lagging of voltage versus current caused by inductive or capacitive loads, and harmonic power factor: from nonlinear current.

In an electric circuit the power factor is equal to the ratio: Watts Volt - Amperes For sinusoidal waveforms this equals the cosine of the phase angle between the volts and amperes. Page 50 VPN 98-030 V03 Products: Power Analyzers Voltech Application Note 101

The ratio of the true power passing through an electric circuit to the product of the voltage and amperage in the circuit.

The percentage of power in an alternating current circuit that is actually consumed by a customerâ€(tm)s electrical equipment compared to the total apparent power supplied.

The relationship between volt-amperes and true power or watts. Volt-amperes multiplied by the power factor equals true power.

The ratio of actual power being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or kilowatts, to the power that is apparently being drawn from a power source, expressed in volt-amperes or kilovolt-amperes.

Electrical efficiency shown as a ratio of the true electrical power, which is the amount that remains after reduction by losses in the circuit. To correctly gauge the circuit needed to for the intended electrical load, the value must be multiplied by the power factor.

Power Factor, the cosine of the phase angle between the Watts (real power) used relative to the VA (apparent power), (Watts = VA x PF). Can be expressed as a percent or decimal number, i.e. a PF of 0.65 is the same as a PF of 65%.

(electrical) ratio of actual power in watts to the product of the required volts ' amps required to produce it.

The ratio of "apparent power" (expressed in kVA) and true or "real power" (expressed in kW). Power Factor =Real Power/Apparent Power Apparent power is calculated by a formula involving the "real power," that which is supplied by the power system to actually turn the motor, and "reactive power," which is used strictly to develop a magnetic field within the motor. Electric utilities prefer power factors as close to 100% as possible, and sometimes charge penalties for power factors below 90%. Power factor is often improved or "corrected" using capacitors. Power factor does not necessarily relate to motor efficiency, but is a component of total energy consumption.

Ratio of: watts over volts x amperes; Power factor in lighting is primarily applicable to ballasts. Since volts and watts are usually fixed, amperes (or current) will go up as power factor goes down. This necessitates the use of larger wire sizes to carry the increased amount of current needed with Low power Factor (L.P.F.) ballasts. The addition of a capacitor to a L.P.F. ballast converts it to a H.P.F. ballast.

The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power, and is a number between 0 to 1 inclusive. Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.

Is a measurement of total power associated with a cartridge load. It is usually the weight of the bullet times the muzzle velocity.

This is a measure of efficiency of electrical devices.

The relationship between the surface area of a piston and air pressure of an air cylinder.