a relief printing technique originally used for book illustration. the negative of the image is incised with copper engraving tools into the end grain of hard wood (as opposed to the wood cut method of engraving lines into the plank side of the wood). the fineness of the lines make it possible to create detailed images, and also allow the artist to create shades of grey by employing cross-hatching techniques. the wood is then inked, and the raised areas are printed, while the parts that have been cut away appear blank. wood engraving is printed either on a press or by hand using a tool to rub the back of the paper.