The state assigned to each pair in advance (in duplicate bridge, vulnerability is indicated on boards, in rubber bridge, it is determined in other ways). Vulnerability affects the scoring, i.e. both size of bonuses for making contracts and penalties. In duplicate bridge, boards are designed so that every pair is vulnerable on approximately 50%, and non-vulnerable on other 50% of deals. Vulnerability affects bidding tactics, as the ratios between potential scores available for both pairs change.