any preparation used to render an organism immune to some disease, by inducing or increasing the natural immunity mechanisms. Prior to 1995, such preparations usually contained killed organisms of the type for which immunity was desired, and sometimes used live organisms having attenuated virulence. Since that date, preparations containing only specific antigenic portions of the pathogenic organism have also been used. Some of these are prepared by genetic engineering techniques.
A substance or group of substances meant to cause the immune system to respond to a tumor or to microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. A vaccine can help the body recognize and destroy cancer cells or microorganisms.
A medicine made from a bacteria, a virus or a poison. It is specially prepared to avoid harm, but to a strength that will stimulate the body to produce cells (antibodies) that will attack the disease (active immunity).
Immunobiological substance used for active immunization by introducing into the body a live modified, attenuated, or killed inactivated infectious organisms or its toxin. The vaccine is capable of stimulating immune response by the host, who is thus rendered resistant to infection. The word vaccine was originally applied to the serum from a cow infected with vaccinia virus; it is now used of all immunizing agents.
A preparation of living, attenuated, or killed bacteria or viruses, fractions thereof, or synthesized or recombinant antigens identical or similar to those found in the disease-causing organisms that is administered to raise immunity to a particular microorganism.
A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen's structure that upon administration stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection.
A biologic product generally made from an infectious agent or its components — a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism — that is killed (inactive) or live-attenuated (active, although weakened). Vaccines may also be biochemically synthesized or made through recombinant DNA techniques.
A preparation administered to achieve immunity against a specific agent by inducing the body to make antibodies to that agent. A vaccine may be a suspension of living or dead organisms, or a solution of an allergen, viral, or bacterial fungus.
A preparation of killed microorganisms; living attenuated, fully virulent, or related nonvirulent microorganisms; or parts of micro- or macroorganisms that are administered to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease.
A substance, a small amount of a dead or weakened disease-causing agent, which is administered to a person, usually by injection, which protects that person from infection by a particular microbe. If the person comes in contact with that pathogen, the body then fights it off easily and can protect against this disease in the future. This protection is called immunity.
Preparations of killed or modified microorganisms that can stimulate an immune (disease fighting) response in the body to prevent future infection with similar microorganisms. These preparations are usually delivered by needle under the skin but may be given in other ways.
A substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious organism. By stimulating an immune response (but not disease), it protects against subsequent infection by that organism, or may direct an immune response against an established infection or cancer.
a substance that contains recombinant antigen or weakened or killed infectious organisms. A vaccine provides long-term immunity against a pathogen by producing an acquired immune response giving rise to memory cells without causing disease.
an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection with the natural or “wild” organism. Vaccines may be living, attenuated strains of viruses or bacteria which give rise to inapparent to trivial infections. Vaccines may also be killed or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. Formalin-inactivated toxins are used as vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus. Synthetically or genetically engineered antigens are currently being developed for use as vaccines. Some vaccines are effective by mouth, but most have to be given parenterally.
Immunogenic material capable of stimulating active immunity or, in the case of DNA vaccines, of directing the synthesis of proteins that stimulate immunity. Vaccines may elicit both prophylactic (preventative) and therapeutic responses.
Any substance, bearing antigens on its surface, that causes activation of an animals' immune system without causing actual disease. The animals' immune system components (e.g. antibodies) are then prepared to quickly vanquish those particular pathogens when they later enter the body.
A disinfectant or anti-virus utility that helps your computer fight computer viruses. It works by looking for the symptoms of virus activity, such as suspicious attempts to infiltrate relatively secluded areas of the hard drive. The vaccine then removes the virus, making your PC infection-free.
A preparation of a pathogenic micro-organism or virus, which has been killed or attenuated so as to lose its virulence but which carries antigens. When injected into a living animal the immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies to counteract the antigens. The antibodies remain in the living system thus providing immunity against any subsequent potentially pathogenic infection by the same organism.
a liquid, the result of bacterial growth, injected into a patient in order to render him immune from that particular disease which is caused by sufficient infection with the microorganisms in question, e
an infectious agent that must be virulent to some degree to be active and everything depends on this virulence and the subject's powers of resistance, a factor that receives only cursory attention at the time
an injection of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or a portion of the pathogen's structure that, once inside the body, stimulates the creation of antibodies or cellular immunity against the particular pathogen
Substance designed to stimulate the body to fight off a specific infection. Vaccines are often made of weakened or partial viruses which cannot cause infection but which can induce a response from the body.
Preparation that produces immune reaction and acquired immunity to a pathogen, often a virus such as polio. Inactivated vaccine consists of killed pathogen and live vaccine consists of an attenuated pathogen.
A preparation that contains either whole disease-causing organisms such as viruses which have been killed or weakened, or parts of such organisms, used to confer immunity against the disease that the organisms cause. Vaccine preparations can be natural, synthetic or derived by recombinant DNA technology.
A weak mixture of a virus (a kind of germ) that is either killed or weakened, so the body can easily defeat it. After the body defeats the virus, it can make antibodies that kill and easily recognize the virus, protecting against subsequent infection by that organism.
A preparation consisting of antigens of a disease-causing organism which, when introduced into the body, stimulates the production of specific antibodies or altered cells. This produces an immunity to the disease-causing organism. The antigen in the preparation can be whole disease-causing organisms (killed or weakened) or parts of these organisms.
Anything that has the ability to trigger an animal's immune system without causing the animal to become sick. The animals' immune system is then given a chance to defend itself against the disease causing agent should it later enter the body.
A substance that stimulates and immune response and renders a person immune to a particular infection. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but vaccines are available for both hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
A vaccine is a non-pathogenic preparation of an antigen which following its introduction into the body stimulates the development of a protective immune response in the recipient such that he/she develops specific antibodies to the antigen introduced. This means that the individual is able to fight the pathogenic disease if and when it occurs. Vaccines are differentiated into the following categories: Live Vaccines These contain a strain of the bacterium or the virus very close to the wild strain which has lost its ability to cause disease (attenuated) but which is capable of growing in the body and in doing so it stimulates an immune response. Inactivated or Killed Vaccines These contain inactivated bacteria or viruses which are incapable of growing in the body but whose presence stimulates a protective immune response to future challenge with the live micro-organism. Some inactivated vaccines only contain fragments of the micro-organism or modified chemical substance produced by the micro-organism.
A preparation of killed virus, living attenuated (weakened) virus, or living, fully virulent virus administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a disease. Subunit vaccines comprise only part of the pathogen. Most candidate AIDS vaccines to date have been of this type.
A preparation of living, attenuated, or killed bacteria or viruses, fractions thereof, or synthesized antigens identical or similar to those found in the disease-causing organisms, that is administered to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease.
A molecule that causes an immune response in an organism without resulting in disease. A vaccine is normally used to ‘train' the immune system to recognise a foreign substance, like a bacteria or virus, so that it can be destroyed quickly if it enters the body at a later stage.
a preparation that contains an infectious agent or its components which is administered to stimulate an immune response that will protect a person from illness due to that agent. A therapeutic (treatment) vaccine is given after infection and is intended to reduce or arrest disease progression. A preventive (prophylactic) vaccine is intended to prevent initial infection. Agents used in vaccines may be whole-killed (inactive), live-attenuated (weakened) or artificially manufactured.
A preparation that contains an antigen consisting of whole disease-causing orgainsms (killed or weakened), or parts of such organisms, and is used to confer immunity against the disease that the organisms cause. Vaccine preparations can be natural, synthetic, or derived by recombinant DNA technology.
A drug made from a killed preparation of a specific viral or bacterial pathogen that stimulates a person's immune system to develop specific antibodies that can recognize and prevent infection by the organism upon subsequent exposure.
Weakened or dead germs, given by injection, that protect against infectious disease. People with heart failure should receive a yearly influenza vaccine and a one -time pneumococcal vaccine (to guard against pneumonia).
A substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious organism. By stimulating an immune response (but not disease), it protects against subsequent infection by that organism. (Read about " Immunizations")
a preparation that contains an infectious agent or its components which is administered to stimulate an immune response that will protect a person from illness due to that agent. Agents used in vaccines may be whole killed (inactivated) organisms, live-attenuated (weakened) organisms or artificially manufactured pieces of an organism. A therapeutic vaccine is given after infection and is intended to reduce or arrest disease progression. A preventive vaccine is intended to prevent initial infection.
A vaccine produced by infecting an animal, chick embryo or animal tissue with a specific virus. The virus is harvested at the height of infection and subjected to killing agents. The dead virus stimulates the production of antibodies when injected into an animal.
A medication that stimulates the production of antibodies to protect against a specific disease. There is a hepatitis A vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and a combination vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and B at the same time.
A suspension of an infectious agent (e.g., virus) or part of that agent. The suspension is administered (usually by injection) in order to confer resistance or immunity to that infectious agent. Other kinds of vaccines, therapeutic vaccines, are in development and being studied. Therapeutic vaccines may help fight HIV even after infection.
a substance containing some version of actual disease-causing organisms (either weakened or dead) that is used to treat or prevent disease by provoking the body to respond with antibodies. The first successful vaccine was for smallpox, in 1796.
Vaccines are manufactured in different ways using part of the germ or virus which causes the disease. Except very rarely (oral polio vaccine only) they cannot cause the disease for which they give protection.
Interacts with the immune system and often produces an immune response similar to that produced by the natural infection, but does not subject the recipient to the disease and its potential complications. Produces immunologic memory similar to that acquired by having the natural disease. There are two types: live attenuated and inactivated.
Cancer vaccines combine malignant cancer cells with a patientâ€™s own natural defenses to fight the disease. These vaccines are custom-made, using a sample of the tumor that is obtained from each patientâ€™s lymph nodes.
A substance that contains antigenic components from an infectious microorganism. By stimulating an immune response--but not the disease--it protects against subsequent infection by that organism. There can be preventive vaccines (e.g. measles or mumps) as well as therapeutic (treatment) vaccines. See Therapeutic HIV Vaccine; Antigen.
A suspension of attenuated or dead microorganisms administered either by injection into the skin or muscle tissue or orally which is used to promote active immunity to infectious disease. Vaccines may be used singly or in combinations.
Preparation of killed microorganisms; living, weakened (attenuated) microorganisms; inactive or attenuated virus particles; inactivated bacterial toxins; or components (protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid) of the microorganism that are administered to stimulate an immune response. Vaccines protect an individual against the pathogenic agent or substance in the future.
A suspension of infectious agents or some part of them, given for the purpose of establishing resistance to an infectious disease. It stimulates development of specific defensive mechanisms in the body which result in more or less permanent protection against a disease.
An application program that removes and destroys a computer virus. The people who unleash computer viruses are often very accomplished programmers, and they are constantly creating new and novel wa ... more
A preparation of microbial antigens which provokes an immune response (i.e., the production of antibodies) on injection, thus conferring immunity on the recipient. There are three types of vaccines. Those containing material from a non-virulent organism which retains its immunogenicity but does not result in infection. Those containing a modified toxin (a toxoid) which has lost its toxic properties but retains its immunogenicity. Those containing live, attenuated organisms, (i.e., genetic variants of a virus or bacterium) which are antigenically similar to the original strain but lack virulence. Recombinant DNA research has allowed the production of new and more specific vaccines. For example, the gene for the B antigen of hepatitis virus has been cloned in E. coli, the protein expressed and a specific anti-B antiserum produced which can be used as a vaccine.
A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. The term derives from Edward Jenner's use of cowpox ("vacca" means cow in Latin), which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox, which Pasteur and others perpetuated. Jenner realized that milkmaids who had contact with cowpox did not get smallpox.