Generally an operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop, at any stage of its life; essentially covers operations on the crop itself and on competing vegetation, e.g., weeding, cleaning. thinning, and even improvement fellings; also pruning, climber cutting and girdling of unwanted growth, but not regeneration fellings, nor ground operations like soil working, drainage, irrigation and controlled burning. Cf. Cultural operations. ( BCFT).