Targets are goal statements about expectations for student performance. They specify the knowledge and understanding to be attained and ground all of the decisions concerning the type of assessment, the task design, and the scoring of the exercise. Four types of targets are discussed in this Web site: knowledge targets, reasoning targets, skill targets and product targets. Knowledge Targets. Knowledge targets focus on the attainment of declarative knowledge (i.e., concepts, generalizations, facts about individuals and events) and procedural knowledge (i.e., steps for solving problems). Product Targets. Product targets focus on the development of quality products such as papers, lab reports or presentations. Reasoning Targets. Reasoning targets focus on problem-solving, reasoning, and analyzing arguments. Skill Targets. Skill targets focus on the attainment of certain behaviors or skills (e.g., using lab equipment properly).