The orbital or rotational period of an object as seen by an observer on the earth. For the moon or a planet, the synodic period is the interval between repetitions of the same phase or configuration. The synodic period of Mars depends on the relative positions of the earth and Mars as they orbit the sun.
The time from one conjunction of a planet to the next conjunction. T U V W
The time required for an object to move once around the sky, relative to the Sun.