(adj.) Very slowly growing trees with crowns in the lower layer of the canopy and leading shoots not free. Such trees are subordinate to dominants, codominants, and intermediates in the crown canopy.
Trees entirely below the general level of the crown cover, receiving no direct light from above or the sides (see crown classes). Syn. - overtopped.
Applied to plants or trees only 1/2 to 5/8 of the height of the best trees, with their leading shoots definitely overtopped by their neighbours or at least shaded on all side by them. Cf. Dominant; Dominated.