(die) VerhÃ¼ttung Primary production of metals. Ores are smelted to metals. Simple ores, such as oxidic ores can be â†’reduced to metal in a single smelting process. More complex ores, such as sulfidic ores have to be â†’roasted, i.e. compounds that cannot be directly reduced have to be oxidised first, before the ore can be reduced to metal. Depending on what ore is smelted, it has sometimes to be â†’beneficiated as well, which is the separation of ore and gangue.
A process of heating and melting ores and concentrates and then separating the desirable molten metals such as copper from other elements. After smelting, the metallic copper is poured into a specific shape called an â€œanodeâ€. Anodes must go through one more purifying or refining process before they are ready for the market place. This is accomplished by sending the anodes to a refinery where they are electrolytically refined into essentially pure copper.
Heating ore or concentrate material with suitable flux materials at high temperatures creating a fusion of these materials to produce a melt consisting of two layers with a slag of the flux and gangue (waste) minerals on top and molten impure metals below. This generally produces an unfinished product (matte) requiring refining.
The process of extracting a metal from its ores by heating; the chemical reduction of the oxide of the metal with carbon in a furnace. Earth and other impurities, separating as lighter and more fusible slags, can readily be removed from the reduced metal.
(1) the chemical reduction of a metal from its ore and certain fluxes by melting at high temperatures. The non-metallic material floated on top of the heavier metallic constituents in the molten state and remained in that position when it cooled and hardened.