A photomechanical process that reproduces all gradations of black through white on an intaglio metal plate. The process produces a finer image than half-tone block and photoengraving. Stieglitz used photogravure to reproduce the facsimile photographs for Camera Work. Photogravures are sometimes referred to as heliogravures.
French for “photo engraving,” this is an etching method used to reproduce photographs. A copper plate is covered with material that hardens upon exposure to light. The plate can be exposed by shining light through a negative as if the plate is photographic paper. Any material not struck by light remains soft and is washed away. The exposed area of the copper plate is etched in an acid bath, and inked and printed, transferring the original image onto paper. The copper plate can be inked and printed over and over, making it a good method for reproducing images in large quantities. Photogravures have a slightly grainy quality that pleased Alfred Stieglitz and other pictorialists, and most of the photos in Camera Work are reproduced by this process.
Otherwise known as photographic lithography, photogravure is a photographic image produced from an engraving plate. The process is not commonly used by small companies due to the costs involved, but it produces prints that have the subtlety of a photograph and the art quality of a lithograph.
a form of intaglio printing that uses a printing plate created by photographic and chemical means, rather than by the more traditional methods that employed engraving a die by hand and transferring it to a plate.
A means of printing a photographic image by the intaglio process. The photographic negative (which may be of an artist's drawing) is projected onto a sensitized gelatin emulsion or carbon tissue that is transferred to a copper plate. After washing the plate areas that correspond to the image on the negative are dissolved and the plate can be bitten by acid as in routine etching. In hand photogravure, which is most commonly used in printmaking, the copper plate is first prepared for aquatint etching. The end result can closely resemble a traditional linear etching or soft ground etching.
A modern stamp-printing process that is a form of intaglio printing. Plates are made photographically and chemically, rather than by hand engraving a die and transferring it to a plate. The ink in this process rests in the design depressions. The surface of the printing plate is wiped clean. The paper is forced into the depressions and picks up the ink, in a manner much like the line-engraved printing process.
Also known as heliogravure. Copper plates are acid etched directly from an original silver print, the etched areas then hold differing amounts of ink in order to correspond to the tones of the original print. If prints remain untrimmed, the impression of the printing plate will remain on the paper (around the image). Blacks often appear as delicate charcoals, and whites - when printed on high quality paper - stay white.
(see Gravure) a printing process where the image is etched into the plate cylinder. The main advantage of this method of printing is the high speed, long run capability. Used mainly for mail order and magazine work.
Invented in 1879, this is a photomechanical printing process which produces a hand-pulled gravure. It is perhaps the most beautiful ink processes used for reproducing photographs and was made popular by Edward S. Curtis' The North American Indian, as well as Alfred Stieglitz's Camera Work, and the fine art photography books of Karl Blossfeldt. The process starts with the photographer's glass plate negative. From that a glass plate positive is produced. The image is then acid-etched onto a copper plate. This plate is then inked by hand and used to produce prints, one per inking, on a hand-operated press. Due to the very laborious nature of photogravure printing it was later replaced in commercial use by the halftone plate. Recently however, a handful of contemporary artists have revived this difficult and beautiful process.
a variation of the intaglio printing process, in which the image is placed on the plate by photographic means. It was invented by W. H. F. Talbot in 1858, but not used commercially until 1880 when Karl Klic refined the development process. The image was produced from a copper plate, dusted with ashphaltum powder and coated with bichromated gelatine tissue (similar to carbon tissue). The exposed, hardened layers were etched to different depths. The result is a high quality photograph with continuous tones, used effectively in book illustration.
The hand-pulled gravure is one of the most beautiful ink processes for reproducing photographs. Alfred Stieglitz and other Photo-Secessionists photographers used it for the illustrations in the early photographic journal Camera Work. Photogravure is particularly suited to reproduce platinum prints and could be mistaken for platinum by the untrained eye. They are made with a copper plate which often leaves a indented or debossed plate mark around the image.
Invented in 1879, this is a photomechanical printing process in which the prints are made in ink on a printing press; image is etched onto a copper plate which then retains ink according to the darkest part of the image; known for its fine quality, prints are most commonly found in Alfred Stieglitz's Camera Work, books by Karl Blossfeldt and Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian volumes and portfolios.
A process using a bichromated gelatin tissue on a copper plate. The exposed and selectively hardened layer controls the penetration of an etching solution, so that the printing plate is etched to different depths. After inking, the plate is printed in the usual intaglio manner. See also gravure.
Prints in which the original image is photographed through a finely cross-ruled screen onto copper-plates, the margins and non-printing areas of the plate are covered with acid resist and the plate is then etched. A type of intaglio printmaking. In this method the proofs are pulled on dry paper through an etching press. Also called Heliogravure.
The published Curtis images are photogravure prints, produced by a photo-mechanical process in which a photographic image is chemically etched onto a metal plate. The plates are inked and, for the Curtis publication, hand printed.
Started around 1879, a print process using copper plates. The plate is sometimes chrome plated to insure sharpness and continuous tones throughout the edition. This is a very complex and exacting photo process which produces great longevity.
A photomechanical printing process based on the production by photography of a plate (usually cylindrical) containing small ink-receptive pits. Commonly used in newspaper and art reproduction, in which the high quality and long-run characteristics of the process are useful.