Definitions for **"Parity"**

The property of being even or odd; as, 3 has odd parity, but 6 has even parity.

The property of having an even or odd number of bits set to the value of 1 (as opposed to 0); -- applied to bytes or larger groups of bits in a data structure. It is used mostly in the process of parity checking. The parity of a data structure can be changed by changing the value of the parity bit.

The use of a self-checking code in a computer employing binary digits in which the total number of l's or 0's in each permissible code expression is always even or always odd.

An error-dectecting scheme which uses an extra checking bit, called the parity bit, to allow the receiver to determine whether there has been an error in the received data bits.

an extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in a transmission. WWWebfx Home Page

A way of checking data to make sure bits of data didn't get lost or garbled during transmission.

A method of data integrity checking that adds a single bit to each byte of data. The parity bit is responsible for checking for errors in the other 8 bits.

A method of error checking memory in which a ninth bit is added. A computer may use Even Parity or Odd Parity. Using Even Parity, when data is put into memory, each byte is examined to determine the number of 1s. If the number of 1s in the byte are even, then a zero (0) would be put in the ninth bit. If the number of 1s in the byte are odd, then a one (1) would be put in the ninth bit to make the number even. So every byte in memory should have an even number of 1s. If a byte is found to have an odd number, then a parity error is displayed. The opposite holds true for Odd Parity.

A check for alterations in transmitted data.

a method of checking for errors in digital data. In an even parity system an extra bit (making a total of 9 bits) is assigned to be on or off so as to make the number of on bits even. In an odd parity system the number of on bits would have to be odd. If the number of on bits is wrong, an error has occurred

In binary-coded data, a condition that is maintained such that, in any permissible coded expression, the total number of 1s, or 0s, is always odd or always even.

The word parity applies to situations where two items or their properties may be juxtaposed as being opposites (in a certain context) of each other. Integers are of either odd or even parity when they are, respectively, odd or even. The convenience is in being able to say "two numbers of different parities" without having to explicitly mention which is which.

This is a common way to check whether data has been altered during transmission.

A method of error checking in which a nondata bit is added to the seven or eight bits representing a character to make the number of binary ones in the character code either even (even parity) or odd (odd parity).

check Process for checking the integrity of a character. A parity check involves appending a bit that makes the total number of binary 1 digits in a character or word (excluding the parity bit) either odd (for odd parity) or even (for even parity).

A common technique for error detection in data transmission. Parity check bits are added to the data so that each group of data bits include an even number of "ones" for even parity and an odd number for odd parity.

A check bit added after a group of binary digits as a method of detecting errors in data transmission. Always odd, or always even. Not supported by some computers due to higher quality phone lines.

When transferring a packet of data, a small amount of additional data may be included to serve as a check to verify the correctness of the data. This additional data is known as parity data. Many parity schemes exist, from the very simple to the very complex.

A way for RAID5 configurations to provide data redundancy. Typically, a RAID5 configuration stores data blocks and parity blocks. In the case of a missing data block, the missing data can be regenerated using the other data blocks and the parity block.

A means of guaranteeing complete accuracy when transmitting or receiving data, parity makes sure the user receives text in written form not in code.

An error detection method in data transmissions that consists of selectively adding a 1-bit to bit patterns [word, byte, character, message] to cause the bit patterns to have either an odd number of 1-bits [odd parity] or an even number of 1-bits [even parity].

A data-checking technique, which uses an extra bit. If you send one extra-bit for each 8 bits to make sure your data got there intact, add and send one more bit - a parity bit. Bit parity could be odd or even. If it is even, you assign 0 to the parity bit in case when the sum of 8 bits is a even number and 1 if it is odd. If it is odd, the logic is reversed. After the byte has arrived, the system will sum 8 bits and check if it matches the eve-or-oddness predicted by the parity byte.

Standard ASCII takes 7 bits to define one character, but a byte has 8 bits. Some online systems use the 8th bit as a primitive form of error-checking: the sending machine adds up the value of the bits in each byte, and gets either an odd or an even result. It then sets the 8th bit according to its calculation. The receiving machine performs the same calculation, and then compares its result with the value of the 8th bit. If they don't match, then the byte has become corrupted. (Unfortunately, it is possible for a byte to be corrupted, and yet still have the 8th bit match, so parity checking isn't particularly useful, and most systems these days don't bother with it.) Pirate

A method of detecting single bit errors in binary data. Parity is classified as either odd or even, and both methods add a single bit to each piece of that data. With odd parity, the extra bit is chosen to give the overall out on 1's in the data an odd number. Even parity bits give the data an even number of 1's. Parity can only detect if one bit is changed, if an even number of bits of the data are corrupt then parity checking will fail. Parity checking can only detect if an odd number of bits of the data are wrong, and has no way to discover which ones it is, or to correct the data. This is why ECC is most often used instead of parity.

(1) evenness or oddness (usually of a suit length);(2) equal length (as another player's).

An extra-bit of code that is used to detect data errors in memory by mak- ing the sum of the active bit in a data word either an odd or an even number.

a method of detecting errors when data are sent over a communications line. The bits in a byte are summed, and a zero (0) is stored as the last bit if the sum is even, a one (1) if it is odd. The receiving computer reads the last bit and then checks the sum. The byte is rejected and a replacement signaled for if the sum does not match its indicator.

A method of verifying the accuracy of transmitted or recorded data. An extra bit appended to an array of data as an accuracy check during transmission. Parity may be even or odd. For odd parity, if the number of 1's in the array is even, a 1 is added in the parity bit to make the total odd. For even parity, if the number of 1's in the array is odd, a 1 is added in the parity bit to make the total even. The receiving computer checks the parity bit and indicates a data error if the number of 1s does not add up to the proper even or odd total.

Redundant information that is associated with a block of information. In Array Manager software, parity is a calculated value used to reconstruct data after a failure. RAID-5 volumes stripe data and parity intermittently across a set of disks. Within each stripe, the data on one disk is parity data and the data on the other disks is normal data. RAID-5 volumes therefore require at least three disks to allow for this extra parity information. When a disk fails, Array Manager software uses the parity information in those stripes in conjunction with the data on the good disks to recreate the data on the failed disk. See also Fault tolerance, Volume, Striped volume (RAID-0), RAID 5 volume (stripe set with parity), RAID policy.

In serial communications, an error detection bit that is added to a group of data bits making the sum of the bits even or odd. Parity can be set to none, odd or even. The parity of a number is its quality of being odd or even. Often, when groups of bits (1's and 0's) are being transmitted or stored, an extra bit is added so that the total number of 1's is always odd (or, alternately, even).

A calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure. While data is being written to a RAID-5 volume, parity is also calculated by performing an exclusive OR (XOR) procedure on data. The resulting parity is then written to the volume. If a portion of a RAID-5 volume fails, the data that was on that portion of the failed volume can be recreated from the remaining data and the parity.

An extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage (in RAM or disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of redundancy data from two or more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used to reconstruct one of the parent data sets. However, parity data does not fully duplicate the parent data sets. In RAID, this method is applied to entire drives or stripes across all disk drives in an array. Parity consists of dedicated parity, in which the parity of the data on two or more drives is stored on an additional drive, and distributed parity, in which the parity data is distributed among all the drives in the system. If a single drive fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity of the respective data on the remaining drives.

A setting of a terminal or modem related to the type of error correction system used when connected to a network.

(mathematics) a relation between a pair of integers: if both integers are odd or both are even they have the same parity; if one is odd and the other is even they have different parity

(computer science) abit that is used in an error detection procedure in which a 0 or 1 is added to each group of bits so that it will have either an odd number of 1's or an even number of 1's; e.g., if the parity is odd then any group of bits that arrives with an even number of 1's must contain an error

a form of error detection, which can detect memory errors and halt the system to prevent data corruption

An error-checking scheme in which a ninth, or “parity,” bit is added. The value of the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 to provide an even number of ones for even parity and an odd number of ones for odd parity.

A method of error detection that uses a percentage of redundant data to verify the user's. (7/96)

A method of error checking in which an extra bit is sent to the receiving device to indicate whether an even or odd number of binary 1 bits were transmitted. The receiving unit compares the received information with this bit and can obtain a reasonable judgment about the validity of the character. The same type of parity (even or odd) must be used by two communicating computers or both may omit parity. When parity is used, a parity bit is added to each transmitted character. The bit's value is 0 or 1, to make the total number of 1's in the character even or odd, depending on which type of parity that is used.

A means of checking that data has been transferred correctly, either between computers across a communications link, or between components inside a single computer, such as a disk and memory.

a means of error checking using an extra bit added to each transmitted character.

Parity memory is used to detect memory errors. Each byte of data is accompanied by a parity bit which is determined by the number of ones in the eight data bits. Even (odd) parity ensures that the total number of one bits in the data bits and parity bit is even (odd). Parity memory is most commonly used on microcomputers with a small word size. A parity memory system which uses a 64 bit word requires the same number of bits as error correcting memory, which makes error correcting memory more appealing for 64 bit and larger word sizes.

When the data stream is split between several disks with an extra disk providing error protection.

A technique used to detect data transmission errors by adding an extra bit to each character.

A quality control method that checks the integrity of data stored in a computer's memory. Parity works by adding an extra bit of data to each byte to make the total number of 1's either odd or even An error is detected if the parity circuit determines that this number has changed, indicating that some of the data may have been lost or otherwise corrupted. Two different parity protocols exist, even parity and odd parity. Parity protocols are capable of detecting single bit errors only. To enable multiple-bit error detection, manufacturers must use a more advanced form of error checking called Error Correcting Code (ECC). See also Fake Parity

A fragment of data added to each byte of transmitted or stored data.

A way of encoding bar/space patterns using an odd or even number of modules bars or spaces. The parity may be calculated by the scanner to provide an error check.

The quality of being either odd or even. The fact that all numbers have a parity is commonly used in data communications to ensure the validity of data. This is called parity checking.

A nucleus or particle has odd (-) or even (+) parity according to whether or not its wave function changes sign when all of the space coordinates are changed. S indicating a systematic assignment or ? indicating a questionable assignment.

This is an obsolete method of detecting communication errors. These days, communication ports are almost always set to No Parity, and the modem's internal error detection and correction are used to provide reliable communication.

In error detecting schemes, a Bit (even or odd) that represents the binary sum of the data transmitted. Primarily used when transmitting data over a long distance. For example, when transmitting information using modems.

Mathematical representation of data used for error detection or correction.

Old protocol used to catch errors.

A data-error-checking procedure where the number of 1s must always be the same-either even or odd- for each group of bits submitted without error. Parity information is saved and compared with each subsequent calculations of whether the number is odd or even.

An extra bit, added to a number, used for checking the accuracy of binary numbers.

Data integrity checking that adds a single bit to each byte of data. The parity bit is used to detect errors in the other 8 bits.

An extra data bit supplied with a data word for the purpose of integrity checking.

A simple form of data error detection based on adding an extra bit to each digital word. This extra bit is derived by a counting of the zeros or ones in a word. Data losses during transmission can thereby be detected.

The parity bit, often attached to data bytes, is a simple method of detecting single errors within the byte. When the number of '1's within the byte is even, the parity bit is set to '1' for even parity. When the number of '1's within the byte is odd, the parity bit is set to '0' for odd parity. If the receiver knows which form of parity is being used, it can perform a comparison check and decide if any errors have occurred during transmission. This is only effective as long as no more than one bit is in error.

A mechanism used for the detection of transmission errors when signals are being transmitted. A single binary digit known as the parity bit has a value of '0' or '1' depending on the number of 1's in a data message. This allows single bit error detection in the receiver

The use of an extra bit on memory chips that serves as a checksum, and can let the operating system know if single-bit memory errors are occurring.

A use of a bit of data for checking 1 bit errors in a byte of data. The are two forms of parity , odd and even parity.

A character-level error-control mechanism used with asynchronous signaling codes. A parity bit is set to either a "one" (mark) or a "zero" (space) to ensure that the total quantity of "ones" within a character are either odd (odd parity) or even (even parity). Start and stop bits are excluded from the parity calculation. Character-level error-control has not been successful, and today, parity is rarely used. Asynchronous hardware, however, requires that the parity bit be present (usually forced to "one") even if unused.

Redundant information that is associated with a block of information. Stripe sets with parity means that there is one additional parity stripe per row. Therefore, you must use at least three, rather than two, disks to allow for this extra parity information. Parity stripes contain the XOR (the Boolean operation called exclusive OR) of the data in that stripe. When regenerating a failed disk, the parity information in those stripes in conjunction with the data on the good disks to recreate the data on the failed disk. See also fault tolerance; stripe sets; stripe sets with parity.

A technique for testing transmitting data. Typically, a binary digit is added to the data to make the sum of all the digits of the binary data either always even (even parity) or always odd (odd parity).

A data encoding scheme that computers (and terminals) use to check the validity of transmitted characters. This scheme adds an extra bit to each character, which the transmitting computer sets or clears based on the type of parity the computers agree to use (odd or even). For example, if the computers use even parity, the transmitting computer sets or clears the parity bit so that there are an even number of bits set in each character it transmits. The receiving computer checks each character and flags a parity error if any character has an odd number of bits set.

Parity checking is used to detect errors in binary-coded data. The fact that all numbers have parity is commonly used in data communications to ensure the validity of data. This is called parity checking.

Parity is a way of testing whether data is okay or not by counting the number of bits (such as during data transmission). The number can be either odd or even, and that information is saved and compared with subsequent calculations that also see if the number is odd or even.

A form of data protection used by RAID level 5 to recreate the data of a failed drive in a disk array.

The addition of one or more redundant bits to information to verify its accuracy.

A form of error checking, parity checking adds an extra bit to each byte of transmitted data. If even parity is used, the bit added to the end of the byte would make an even number of ones, if odd parity is used, it would make an odd number. For example, let's suppose we are using even parity and we send the byte 0101101. This byte contains an even number of ones (four) so the bit we would add at the end would be 0. If we were using odd parity, we would add a 1 to make the total of ones equal to 5 (an odd number).

Strategy which consists of leaving an even number of empty squares in each region to which your opponent has access.

A form of error checkingusually used in online communications to ensure it received all information it was supposed to.

A method of generating redundant information which can be used to detect errors in stored or transmitted data. Parity is used in standard RAM SIMMs and over the SCSI bus to detect data errors. Parity is used in RAID-5 disk arrays to reconstruct flawed or missing data sectors.

n. the property of being either even or odd, as the depth number of a bitting in a combination, or the possible progressives in a given position of a two step progression

In data communications, parity is a simple procedure of checking the integrity of transmitted data. The most common type of parity is Even, in which the number of 1's in a byte of data add up to an even number, and None, in which a parity bit is not added.

Logic that detects the presence of an error in memory. Generally, a single parity bit is used for each byte (8 bits) of data. The most commonly used forms of parity are even parity, odd parity and checksums.

An error-checking mechanism used to ensure error-free transmission of information.

A simple error-detection method that checks the validity of a transmitted character. Character checking has been surpassed by more reliable and efficient forms of error checking, including V.42 and MNP 2-4 protocols. Either the same type of parity must be used by two communicating computers, or both may omit parity.

A method of generating redundant information in RAID levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 to reconstruct flawed or missing data sectors within an array.

A bit added to a group of bits to detect the presence of an error. The parity bit looks at the other 8 bits and determines if they are even or odd and correspondingly is a 0 or 1. The system compares the 8 bits with the parity bit. If they both are even or odd, the data is assumed to be correct. If one is even and one is odd, there is an error, and typically the system will fail.

Parity is an error-checking system where 1 bit is added to every 8 which move in and out of system memory. This bit is called the parity bit, and will change to be a 1 or 0 depending on the number of 1 or zeroes in the 8 bits it accompanies. The system compares this bit to what it expects, and any inconsistencies generate a parity error. Not all memory uses parity.

The state of being even-numbered or odd-numbered. A parity bit is a binary digit appended to a group of binary digits to make the sum of the digits either all odd (odd parity) or all even (even parity).

An error dectection scheme that uses an extra checking bit, called the parity bit, to allow the receiver to verify that the data is error free.

A system for encoding characters with odd or even bar code patterns. Parity provides a self-checking feature in bar codes and other data transmission techniques. Even parity characters have an odd number of binary ones in their structure. For the purposes of data processing and data communications, parity does not relate to whether the original character is odd or even, but how an individual character is made odd or even with the addition of one more bit (1-0).

A calculated value that is used to reconstruct data after a failure. RAID-5 volumes stripe data and parity intermittently across a set of disks. When a disk fails, some server operating systems use the parity information together with the data on good disks to recreate the data on the failed disk. See also: fault tolerance; RAID-5 volume

Used in error correction. A separate bit _ the parity bit _ is added and manipulated so that the number of 1s is odd (for odd parity) or even (for even parity). If the number of bits sent don't conform to the parity, the software detects and error.

the state of equality or being equal. In computer programming, as well as the transmission of data, evenly (or oddly) matched groupings of data allow for a simple method of checking errors.

In communications, a simple form of error checking that uses an extra, or redundant, bit, after the data bits but before the stop bit(s). Parity may be set to odd, even, mark, space,or none. Odd p ... more

A term used in binary communication systems to indicate whether a number of 1's in a transmission plus a parity bit is even or odd. If the total number of 1's is even, the parity is said to be even; if the total number of 1's is odd, the parity is said to be odd.

An error detection method used in both communications and computer memory checking to determine character validity. Communications now makes use of more efficient "block" checking although parity must still be matched in a communication session for transfer to take place correctly. Host communication in the BBS environment omits parity checking (no parity).

A redundant error detection method in which the total number of binary 1's (or 0's) is always made even or odd by setting the last bit or parity bit of a packet to the appropriate 1 or 0..

The quality or condition of being equal or equivalent; a like state or degree; equality; equivalence; close correspondence; analogy; as, parity of reasoning.

A constant state or equal value.

A condition that occurs when the market value of a convertible bond is equal to the market value of the common stock.

If a process is equally probable when the coordinates of space are reflected (as in a mirror), it is said to have parity symmetry.

Equal status, equal value. Often used when comparing currency values.

The concept whereby all members of the community planning group are provided opportunities for orientation and skills building to participate in the planning process and to have equal voice in voting and other decision-making activities.

(1) If no priority exists, the right of an execution is awarded to the broker who can at least completely fill the contra order. If more than one broker can fill the order, they match coins to determine which one will satisfy the contra broker. (2) Options are considered to be at parity when the striking price plus the premium (less the premium for a Put Option) equal the market price of the underlying stock. (3) Convertible securities are considered to be on parity if they are equal in value to the securities they are exchangeable for.

(1) Foreign exchange dealers' slang naming the trading price, which is the correct market price (2) For convertibles - common stock price at which a convertible security can become exchangeable for common shares of equal value (also known as conversion value) (3) Option parity - the market price for an option, which equals its intrinsic value. (4) International parity - Official rates for a currency in terms of SDR (Special Drawing Right) or other pegging currency. (5) Listed parity - situation when all parties involved are of equal standing and priority. In order to determine the winning bid when brokers are bidding for a security, and no party has floor priority, a random drawing will be held.

An option is said to be trading at parity if the premium at which it is currently trading in the market is exactly equal to its intrinsic value. Time value, in other words, is zero.

Refers to an in-the-money option which is trading at intrinsic value only. An option trading under parity is a discount option.

A situation in which all members of the community planning group have the training, skills, and information they need to participate in the planning process and to have an equal voice in voting and other decision making.

For convertibles, level at which a convertible security's market price equals the aggregate value of the underlying common stock; value/worth of the convertible bond considered only as an equity instrument (Conversion ratio times common price). See: Conversion value. For international parity, US$ price of a foreign stock's last sale in an overseas market (Local currency stock price times forex rate times ADR ratio). For listed parity, condition whereby no party has floor priority, and matching thus occurs. For options parity, dollar amount by which an option is in the money. See: Intrinsic value.

A term used to describe an option contract's total premium when that premium is the same amount as its intrinsic value. For example, when an option's theoretical value is equal to its intrinsic value, it is said to be 'worth parity.' When an option is trading for only its intrinsic value, it is said to be 'trading for parity.' Parity may be measured against the stock's last sale, bid, or offer.

Equality in amount, status or character. In futures trading, it is the situation in which cash and futures contracts are selling at equivalent yields.... read full article

The term "parity" as used in this study refers to the various levels of equality in coverage between mental health and physical health. The range of levels can span from complete lack of equality to comprehensive parity in which all elements of mental health and physical health coverage are provided equally. (Definition developed by Task Force)

A relationship which defines a level of purchasing power for farmers equal to an earlier base period. The base period as defined by law and used in calculating parity prices is 1910-14. Some farmers, rather than using the technical definition above, think of parity as simply "a fair price plus a reasonable profit."

Equality in amount or value.

equality. In political discourse, the term is employed in a variety of contexts: employment parity (when the makeup of a company's workforce is the same as the makeup of the population as a whole in its region); racial parity (when economic status of racial groups is equal); wage parity (the requirement that workers in certain occupations receive the same pay as workers in another, specified occupation).

equality or equivalence She said it was time she was given pay parity with her male colleagues.

a condition where percentage of the representation of a protected group in the workforce, occupational category, job group or class equals the percentage of such persons in the availability base.

Describing an in-the-money option trading for its intrinsic value: that is, an option trading at parity with the underlying stock. Also used as a point of reference-an option is sometimes said to be trading at a half-point over parity or at a quarter-point under parity, for example. An option trading under parity is a discount option.

Equality between a convertible security's price and the value of the underlying stock if converted.

A condition which exists when the premium for an option consists strictly of intrinsic value. The amount by which an option is in the money.

In an exchange market, a situation in which all brokers bidding has equal standing and the winning bid is awarded by a random drawing.

Equality in the present purchasing power of a unit (bushel, cwt) of a product compared with its purchasing power during the period 1910-14. Parity price for any commodity equals its 10-year average price multiplied by the ratio of the current Parity Index compared to the 10-year average of Prices Received Index.

A theoretically equal relationship between farm product prices and all other prices. In farm program legislation, parity is defined in such a manner that the purchasing power of a unit of an agricultural commodity is maintained at its level during an earlier historical base period.

The price at which a convertible security's value would be equal to that of the underlying stock if converted.

Parity in sports is defined as attempting to make an equal playing field for all participants, specifically with regard to financial issues. When parity in a sports league is achieved, all participating teams enjoy roughly equivalent levels of talent. In such a league, the "best" team is not exponentially better than the "worst" team.

The condition of having borne a child or children, alive or dead.

The number of different times a female has had offspring.

the number of children borne by a woman

The number of live births a woman has had. A woman of zero parity has had no births, a woman of parity one has had one live birth, etc. (Compare with Gravidity.)

The number of children previously born alive to a woman; for example, 'two-parity women' are women who have had two children and 'zero-parity women' have had no live births.

The condition of having given birth to an infant or infants.

the condition or fact of having borne offspring (Morris 1992).

(obstetrics) the number of live-born children a woman has delivered; "the parity of the mother must be considered"; "a bipara is a woman who has given birth to two children"

The number of pregnancies of a particular woman in which the fetus has reachedviability.

Number of babies where the gestation went to term.

The number of times a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a live infant.

Number of children that a woman has had.

The number of children previously born alive to a woman. For instance, women who have had three children are referred to as 'three-parity women' and women who have had no children are termed 'zero-parity women'.

The number of times a sow has farrowed, i.e., a 4th parity sow has farrowed four times.

rate of the number of females which have laid eggs over the total number of examined females. Useful because it makes it possible to evaluate the average physiological age of a population.

The number of viable infants that a woman has delivered. Viability is currently accepted from 24 weeks of gestation onwards

(1) Foreign exchange dealer's slang for your price is the correct market price. (2) Official rates in terms of SDR or other pegging currency.

Rate at which a unit of currency can be exchanged for a statutorily agreed reference item, e.g. a fixed amount of gold, SDRs or other currencies (official parity).

A property assigned to elementary particles, conceptualized as a form of symmetry, representing the fact that no fundamental distinctions can be observed between right-handed and left-handed systems of particles in their interactions, and supported by the typical observation that the total parity of a system is unchanged as particles are created or annihilated; however, certain interactions involving the weak force have been shown to violate the principle of conservation of parity.

(physics) parity is conserved in a universe in which the laws of physics are the same in a right-handed system of coordinates as in a left-handed system

PhotoRecall POI presidents proxy

A term used to describe an in-the-money option contract's total premium when tha...

see Crease assignment.

Equivalence in value to the currency of another country.

A property of the wave function of a system, which takes the value of +1 or -1, indicating whether the value of the wave function changes sign if each of the variables of the system is replaced by its negative.

equivalent in value.

another term for an exchange rate, or for par value.

Equivalence between par value and market value of a marketable security.

participating dividend payout ratio

Parity of a node on a graph

A term used to denote that shares or commodities are the same price in different markets.

See Purchasing Power Parity.

Par Rate.