Toyota Production System or TPS. The term "lean" was coined by Dan Jones and Jim Womack in their 1996 classic Lean Thinking.
"combines the advantage of craft and mass production, while avoiding the high cost of the former and the rigity of the latter." (from: The Machine that Changed the World, quoted after Rifkin, End of Work, p.96)
The system of organization production developed in japan that stresses quick tool changeover times, minimum parts and work-in-progress inventories, high levels of quality and continuous improvement.