The presence of a consistent concentration of ions in the effluent of an ion exchange system due to incomplete removal of the ions; caused by incomplete regeneration, excessive flow rates, low temperatures, the concentration or characteristics of the influent ions, or other factors. (See hardness leakage.)
(hardness, sodium, silica, etc.) Caused by incomplete regeneration of an ion exchange bed. Since complete regeneration is usually inefficient, most ion exchange processes operate at one half to one third of the total capacity of the ion exchanger.
As relates to ion exchange, the presence in the effluent of the type of ions, present in the feedwater to be treated, which the ion exchange process was supposed to remove.