The ruler of the Khazar state (the Khazar Kaganate). Among earlier Turk tribes the term meant something like High King – a tribal leader who commands the federation as a whole, as well as his own tribe. The Khazars had two rulers, a priestly king (with all the associated Golden Bough symbolism) and a temporal king (who carried the military and administrative responsibilities of rulership). The temporal king was often distinguished from the priestly by being called Kagan Bek or simply Bek. Many foreigners dealt with and were aware of only the Kagan Bek and referred to him as King.