The conclusions that one is able to draw from the data. Sometimes the numbers do not tell the whole story. Please see the section on How to use Canadian Cancer Surveillance On-Line. For instance it may seem that one area on a map has a particularly high cancer rate, when in fact it could be just be chance that the cases occurred that year. By checking the rates before and after, one would notice that the rates are more like the average over time. The statistical significance of the rate should also be considered.
An inference is reasoning based on observation and experience. To infer is to arrive at a decision or opinion by reasoning from known facts. For example, I can see that the student described above is smiling. From this, I can infer from my experience that he is happy. It is particularly easy to think that an inference is a fact. It takes critical thinking to distinguish between the two. In the example of the smiling student, I do not know that the student is happy. He may be smiling for some other reason.
A conclusion arrived at from facts and by reasoning. Example: If you arrived at a gathering of friends and one of them was sitting in front of a decorated cake and blowing out candles, you would make the inference that it was a birthday celebration and the person celebrating the birthday was the one blowing out the candles.
a logical conclusion or judgment that is explicitly supported by data, evidence, and information gathered as part of the teacher evaluation process. See Data, Evidence, High Inference, Information, Low Inference.
(1) This is an umbrella term referring to a final outcome of a study. The outcome may consist of a conclusion about, an understanding of, or an explanation for an event, a behavior, a relationship, or a case. (2) This is "a conclusion reached" where there is either (a) a "deduction from premises that are accepted as true" or (b) an induction by "deriving a conclusion from factual statements taken as evidence for the conclusion" (Angeles, 1981, p. 133). See also deductive inference (in research cycle), deductive logic, inductive inference (in research cycle), inductive logic, meta-inference (or integrated mixed inference), and retroductive inference. Back to the top
drawing meaning from a combination of clues in the text without explicit reference to the text. "The sky was dark and cloudy so I took my umbrella." We can infer that it might rain even thought the text does not say that.