(1856-1939) psychiatrist in Vienna; Positivist; Naturalist; wrote 1. Moses and Monotheism, Totem and Taboo Civilization and Its Discontents General Introduction to Psychoanalysis An Outline of Psychoanalysis and 5. New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. The Mind (self) is conceived as a dynamic unity of three interacting and interrelated components: id: the unconscious driving force originally identified with sex instinct but later associated with the opposing drives of eros (life instinct) and arakne (death instinct); ego: the conscious, thinking activity of self, calculatingly selfish in seeking its own satisfactions alone; superego: originally the censor or the conscience of the self as an internalized social morality developed entirely in early childhood and as the result of conflict between the id (as child) and society. Ego or consciousness (mind in the usual sense) develops from the id in its encounter with the social and physical environment.