A fallacy is an error in reasoning. It refers to typical errors that render unsound the arguments in which they appear. Common fallacies are: The appeal to emotion: The ad populum approach is a common fallacy in arguments. Instead of presenting evidence in an argument, it relies on expressive language and other devices calculated to incite enthusiasm, excitement, anger, or hatred appeal to pathos (pity): A common fallacy in arguments, the ad misericordiam approach is a special case of the appeal to emotion in which the altruism and mercy of the audience are the special emotions to which the speaker appeals.
An argument that fails to meet any one of the standards of acceptability, relevance, and sufficiency. See also Argument ad hominem; Ambiguity; Appeal to fear; Appeal to popularity; Appeal to tradition; Begging the question; Equivocation; Fallacy of composition; Fallacy of division; Fallacy of incompatibility; Faulty analogy; Hasty conclusion; Improper appeal to practice; Loaded term; Poisoning the well; Post hoc fallacy; Problematic premise; Red herring; Slippery slope argument; Straw person fallacy; Two wrongs fallacy; Vagueness.
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an argument that is claimed to be false or mistaken because it does not rely on a provable or truthful assertions, or does not rely on logic, or is an invalid type of reasoning which will lead to a wrong conclusion
An error in reasoning that makes it impossible to establish the conclusion in question on the given premise; a logical mistake that makes deductive arguments invalid. "Informal fallacies" generally describe a stated inference that frequently (but not always) is not true. Example: Guilt by association -- "He hangs out with bad kids, therefore he must be a bad kid." Maybe so, but he might hang out with them because he's an undercover vice cop, or a Christian youth worker, etc.
A fallacy is a component of an argument that is demonstrably flawed in its logic or form, thus rendering the argument invalid in whole, except in the case of begging the question, a false analogy and other informal fallacies. In logical arguments, fallacies are either formal or informal. Because the validity of a deductive argument depends on its form, a formal fallacy, or logical fallacy is a deductive argument that has an invalid form, whereas an informal fallacy is any other invalid mode of reasoning whose flaw is not in the form of the argument.