A rate enhancement technique in which the user selects a predetermined sequence of items to retrieve a complete word, phrase or sentence. Codes can be based on icons (symbols), alphabet letters, letters and numbers combined ("alphanumeric codes") or numbers alone. A sequence of symbols from the selection set calls up the desired word or phrase (Dowden & Cook, 2002)
the manner and process by which an advertiser selects words and visuals to convey a particular message; the stage of the communications model in which the sender (advertiser) puts the message into language (words, symbols, illustrations) that will stimulate the receiver (prospective buyer) to the action desired by the advertiser. Putting the message into language, via words, symbols, tone, and other elements that make up language the advertiser believes will be understood and will influence the prospective buyer to take the particular action desired by the advertiser. Translating an idea into a message that will convey the intended meaning. See decoding.
a function of with values in , and a decoding is a function of with values in