Basically, there are six different processes to remove the saline from water. Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO), Electro dialysis Reversal (EDR) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SRO) are all membrane separation processes. Multiple Effect Distillation (MED), Multiple Stage Flash (MSF) and Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) are all thermal processes, which produce distilled water. In thermal desalting, the process involves some form of boiling or evaporation. In a simple still, seawater can be boiled to the point of releasing steam, which, when condensed, forms pure water. For membrane separation desalination, semi-permeable and ion-specific membranes can be used. Membrane processes are based on separation rather than distillation. Reverse osmosis membranes let water pass through them, but then reject the passage of salt ions.
One of the processes used in the production of recycled water that removes salts and most other impurities by distillation or electro-chemical and/or physical means. See definition of salinity or sodicity.
Production of fresh (potable) water from sea water, salt or brackish water by one of several processes e.g. distillation, flash distillation, electrodialysis or reverse osmosis if salt content is not too high.
The process by which high salt concentration in an artefact is reduced. It usually involves immersion in water, which creates a gradient in salt concentration, thus facilitating salt to move out from the artefact to the water.
Desalination refers to any of several processes that remove the excess salt and other minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or irrigation, and if almost all of the salt is removed, for human consumption, sometimes producing table salt as a by-product. Desalination of ocean water is common in the Middle East (because of water scarcity) and the Caribbean, and is growing fast in the USA, North Africa, Spain, Australia and China. It is used also on ships, submarines and islands.