(1904-1997). China's "paramount" leader from 1978 until his death in February of 1997. Deng won international acclaim for introducing market-oriented reforms in China after the end of the Cultural Revolu-tion, but his reputation and popularity both at home and abroad were severely tarnished by his role in the harsh suppression of the Tiananmen protest movement in the spring of 1989. A long-time revolution-ary, Deng was himself purged, first in 1966 and again in 1976, but returned to power shortly after Mao's death. He never held any of the top party or government positions, his highest posts were vice-chairman of the CCP and vice-premier of the PRC; his authority was exercised through more infor-mal means--particularly his deep personal ties to many of the country's most senior political and military leaders. In Novem-ber 1989, Deng retired from his last formal post as chairman of the party's Central Military Commission.