1,2 dichloroethane is the intermediate for making PVC. It is made by direct chlorination of ethylene or by oxychlorination, where a mix of hydrochloric acid, oxygen/air and ethylene is transformed to DCE and water by a copper catalyst. The hydrochloric acid may come from the cracking of DCE to form VCM, or from external processes, or from the incineration of chlorinated wastes. Other industrial used reactions to make DCE also exist or are developed. DCE is also used as raw material for the production of amines.