Definitions for "Confounding variable"
a variable whose unwanted effect on the dependent variable might be confused with that of the independent variable. 48
A variable that systematically varies along with the independent variable.
A health-state related variable that is distributed differently in different groups causing confusion (introduces artifactual estimates of effect) in comparing the rates of health states in the groups.
also known as confounding influences. The influence of a feature or attribute acting on units in a study (our example refers to crossing structures) being tested that cannot be controlled, so that differences of the attribute(s) influence results such that they may be erroneous.
a problem because it has been left out of the analysis (either not thought of, or not easily measurable)