Definitions for "confounding"
Allowing two or more variables to vary together so that it is impossible to separate their unique effects.
Confounding is considered a "mixing of effects". When a factor X causes a disease Y, that relationship could be confounded by a factor C that is associated with both factor X and disease Y. C would be an alternative explanation for the relationship observed between X and Y.
A mixing of effects. The exposure - disease association is distorted by a third factor, which is associated with both of the other two variables.
tending to contradict (a hypothesis).
that confounds or contradicts or confuses
Keywords:  monocytes
Keywords:  mistake, thing, taking, another, one
a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another.