The process of granting permission to do business or to sell a particular product. A device states can use to enforce standards of conduct and quality on competitive suppliers, on pain of penalties including civil fines, suspension of certification, and revocation of certification to do business. Similar to licensure. Contrast registration, which requires providing information, including perhaps proof of financial and technical capability to the state, but does not provide for penalties or revocation of the right to do business upon violation of the norms of conduct.
Hazmat Certification, DG Certification, DG Certified, Hazmat Certified etc. all refer to the concept that someone, some entity is conferring approval on an individual or company that they are authorized to ship hazmat in commerce.—Unfortunately, there's a lot of confusion and misinformation in this area.—In the US, only the employer can certify employees. The DOT does not certify anyone; never has.
the official notification to the supporting department or agency, in accordance with the requirements of this policy, that a research project or activity involving human subjects has been reviewed and approved by an IRB.