An abnormality of structure, function, or metabolism (body chemistry) present at birth that results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Currently, birth defects rank as the leading cause of death for infants during the first year of life.
Congenital Anomalies, Chap. 14 in International Classification of Diseases Version 9 manual (740-759)
conditions resulting from faulty prenatal development. Structural birth defects—those affecting the body—are usually apparent in the first year of life. Functional problems in brain development (leading to learning problems or mental retardation) may not be apparent until childhood.
Abnormalities at birth or detectable early in infancy. Also called congenital defects. Causes can be genetic or inherited, as a result of drug or chemicals, accidental irradiation early in the pregnancy, maternal infections or certain illnesses during the pregnancy, or physical factors in the uterus.
Studies reveal a higher incidence of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and neurological deficits including hyper-reflexia and delayed development. Fetuses retain more mercury than adults. The placenta provides no barrier to mercury. Infants may actually act as a sink for this metal. Skerfring, Hanson, and Lindsten (1970) found chromosome damage in humans exposed to mercury through consumption of mercury-poisoned fish.
Any structural, functional or biochemical abnormality (genetically determined or induced/acquired during pregnancy) not due to injuries suffered during birth.
These are health conditions (physical or biochemical) that develop in the fetus as pregnancy progresses. Also known as congenital birth defects because the baby is born with them, they can be either minor or life-threatening. Birth defects can be caused by 1) naturally occurring mutations in the genes, 2) genes inherited by the baby from one of its biological parents, or 3) environmental conditions that affect the pregnancy (such as the pregnant woman's consumption of alcohol or her exposure to lead).
The term, birth defect, refers to any anomaly, functional or structural that is caused before birth. A birth defect may be inherited or acquired and may be present in infancy or become apparent later in life.
unhealthy defects found in newborns, often caused by the mother's exposure to environmental hazards or the intake of drugs or alcohol during pregnancy.