The Empire which, under King Nebuchadnezzar, conquered the southern kingdom (Judah) in 597 BCE. Under Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 587 BCE.
The southern kingdom of Mesopotamia. The Babylonian language is a branch of Akkadian. I am not sure what the difference is, if any, between Babylonia and Sumer. Sumer is one of the world's oldest recorded civilizations. See Sumer.
A region of southern Mesopotamia named after the city of Babylon.