Cut stone with even faces and squared edges, which are laid in horizontal courses. â€œRandomâ€ ashlar uses stones of varying sizes which interlock but do not form continuous horizontal or vertical courses. â€œCoursedâ€ ashlar is cut to a regular size but the finish has a rough texture.
A flat surface generally square or rectangular having sawed or dressed beds of joints. A pattern where the stone is square or rectangular in shape, typically used as a wall facing. . Random Ashlar – Stone is cut rectangular (usually sawn) and heights are cut to fixed dimensions so that they fit together in a pattern. . Ashlar Rubble – Stone shapes are roughly rectangular and heights are random which produces a more rustic wall. Coursed Ashlar – Stone is cut rectangular but laid so that stones of equal height are adjacent to each other (i.e. in courses). Horizontal joints run the length of the wall but vertical joints are broken so that no two joints are over one another.
The practice of laying stone in smooth cut - or dressed - blocks in regular courses, seperated by only the thinnest of joints. Originated by the ancient Egyptians and adopted as an important element of classical architecture.
Stone that has been squared and laid in regular courses with fine joints. Render on the external walls of Victorian buildings was often ruled to imitate this, while weatherboards were sometimes similarly imitative, (ashlar boards).
Stonework that is cut on four sides so that the adjoining sides will be at right angles to each other, no matter whether the face is dressed or not. Coursed Ashlar: ashlar set to form continuous horizontal joints. Coursed broken-bond ashlar– ashlar of random shape and size are set in full horizontal courses, but with a variety of sizes of vertical mortar points. Stacked Ashlar: ashlar set to form continuous vertical joints. Random Ashlar: ashlar set with stones of varying length and height so that neither vertical or horizontal joints are continuous.
Cut, squared building stone finely dressed on all sides adjacent to other stones. Requires only very thin mortar joints. Random ashlar uses rectangular stones in discontinuous courses. Coursed ashlar uses rectangular stones of the same height in each horizontal course, but each course may vary in height. Broken rangework arranges ashlar units into horizontal courses of varying heights, which may be divided into horizontal groups at various intervals.
A term for hewn or squared stones in contradistinction to rubble work; it is generally used for facings and set in horizontal courses and bears various names according to the manner in which it is worked such as Plain Ashlar, Tooled Ashlar, Rustic Ashlar etc.
Dressed stonework of any type, where the blocks have squared sides, carefully squared corners, and are laid in regular courses, usually with fine joints. The faces of the stones, called ashlars, are generally smooth and polished, but can be tooled. The picture on the left is Ashlar as opposed to rough stone on the right.
Ashlar is dressed stone work of any type of stone. Ashlar blocks are large rectangular blocks of masonry sculpted to have square edges and even faces. The blocks are generally 13 or 15 inches square, when smaller than 11 inches they are usually called "small ashlar".