A ruler, or sovereign, of a Mohammedan state; specifically, the ruler of the Turks; the Padishah, or Grand Seignior; -- officially so called.
Arab term describing a power holder delegated by the Caliph . Since the 12th century, this title is carried by any ruler, be his power recognized or not by the Caliph. Today, this title is used in the Arab world only by the ruler of Oman.
Title of the Ottoman sovereign. (Fine, John V.A. Jr. The Late Medieval Balkans, 626)
ruler, military commander in medieval Islamic states