A human intoxication caused by ingestion of tropical piscivorous reef fishes contaminated with toxin- producing benthic/epiphytic dinoflagellates. These fish accumulate biotoxins through the food chain (Steidinger 1993). More than 175 separate gastrointestinal, neurotoxic, or cardiovascular symptoms may be associated with this poisoning (Becker & Sanders 1991). In extreme cases death can result from respiratory failure. Although incidence is high, human mortality is low (Hallegraeff 1995).
An illness caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxin. The illness, characterized by stomach upset and flulike symptoms, may also cause muscular and nervous system problems.
a disease caused by the ingestion of fish or other marine organisms that have a high concentration of a naturally occurring toxin, ciguatoxin, stored in their tissues.
the dinoflagellate toxin illness caused by eating fish that are predators on tropical reefs. The illness is a classic biotoxin-associated illness, one of the few that comes from eating toxin-contaminated food
A neurotoxin found in certain types of reef fish. The toxin accumulates in the flesh as a result of eating some forms of algae, or preying on fish that eat the algae.
Disease of humans caused by eating tropical fish containing toxins. These toxins are thought to come from blue-green algae.
Ciguatera is a foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as ciguatoxin, which is present in many micro-organisms (particularly, the micro-algae Gambierdiscus toxicus) living in tropical waters. Like many naturally and artificially occurring toxins, ciguatoxin bioaccumulates, resulting in higher concentration of the toxin at higher levels of the food chain. Predator species near the top of the food chain in tropical waters, such as barracuda, moray eel, parrotfish, grouper and amberjack, are most likely to cause ciguatera poisoning, although many other species have been found to cause occasional outbreaks of ciguatera.