A piece of DNA, usually circular, functioning as part of the genetic material of a cell, not integrated with the chromosome and replicating independently of the chromosome, but transferred, like the chromosome, to subsequent generations of daughter cells. In bacteria, plasmids often carry the genes for antibiotic resistance; they are exploited in genetic engineering as the vehicles for introduction of extraneous DNA into cells, to alter the genetic makeup of the cell. The cells thus altered may produce desirable proteins which are extracted and used; in the case of genetically altered plant cells, the altered cells may grow into complete plants with changed properties, as for example, increased resistance to disease.
A self-replicating structure in bacterial cells that carries genes for non-vital cell functions.
An extrachromosomal genetic element found in bacteria, not essential for growth. Usually contains genetic information for resistance to an antimicrobial agent or for degradation of additional substrates.
A circular piece of DNA that exists outside and separate from the chromosome of a bacterial cell. Plasmids are smaller than the bacterial chromosome and many replicate autonomously-that is, independently of the rest of the DNA in the bacterial cell. In molecular biology a piece of DNA of interest is isolated and inserted into a plasmid and can be used for a variety of functions.
a structure in bacteria which contains genetic material. Bacterial cells pass on the structure separately from the chromosome. Sometimes the plasmid passes on resistance to antibiotics.
Small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the genome. Used extensively as a vector for DNA cloning.
Independent, free-floating circular piece of DNA in a bacterium, capable of making copies of itself in the host cell. Plasmids can be used in recombinant DNA experiments to clone genes from other organisms and make large quantities of their DNA.
A generic term for all types of intracellular inclusions that can be considered as having genetic functions.
A DNA element that is able to replicate independently. Elements of bacterial plasmids are utilized in vectors.
small, free-floating rings of DNA found in bacteria
A small circular piece of bacterial or yeast DNA which is found in the cytoplasm and which is replicated independently of the rest of the cell's genome. Plasmids are used to establish a transgenic strain.
a piece of genetic material that is not part of a chromosome. Genetically engineered plasmids are often used in biotechnology.
Plasmid A circular DNA molecule, outside the chromosome, which replicates independently. MW 1-200 million
Small circular DNA replicating independently of the chromosome in bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes (e.g. yeasts). Plasmids usually carry genes for e.g. antibiotic resistance, colicin production and are widely used in genetic engineering as vectors. Vectors are vehicles into which foreign genes are inserted for subsequent cloning or expression in bacterial cells.
an extrachromosomal, self-replicating structure found in bacterial cells that carries genes for a variety of functions not essential for cell growth. Plasmids consist of cyclic double-stranded DNA molecules that replicate independently of the chromosomes and can be transmitted from one cell to another by conjugation or transduction. Episomes are genetic elements that can replicate in either of two alternative statesâ€”independently in the cytoplasm or as an integrated portion of the bacterial chromosome.
A usually circular piece of DNA, primarily independent of the host chromosome, often found in bacterial and some other types of cells.
An extrachromosomal genetic element that is not essential for growth, but confers a selective advantage in certain environments(Lecture: Bacterial Molecular Genetics I, 2/5/02)
Autonomously replicating extra chromosomal DNA molecule. An autonomous self-replicating genetic particle usually of circular double-stranded DNA.
An extrachromosomal circular double-stranded DNA molecule found in bacterial cells. Plasmid DNA contains gene essential for cell growth. These structures are self-replicating and can be transferred from one cell to another.
A self-replicating (autonomous) circle of DNA distinct from the chromosomal genome of bacteria. A plasmid contains genes normally not essential for cell growth or survival. Some plasmids can integrate into the host genome, be artificially constructed in the laboratory and serve as vectors (carriers) in cloning.
An autonomous, self-replicating extrachromosomal circular DNA.
small circular DNA molecules often used as vectors to transform specific genes into cells.
self-replicating hereditary material that is not part of a chromosome and is usually found in the cytoplasm of bacteria and some yeasts; plasmids can be used as vectors for introducing foreign DNA into recipient cells.
A DNA molecule distinct from the chromosome(s); that is, an extrachromosomal element. May replicate independently of the chromosome.
Circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that can exist and replicate independently of the host cell chromosome or be integrated with it. Although a plasmid is stably inherited, it is not required for bacterial cell growth and reproduction.
Small, circular extrachromosomal DNA molecule capable of autonomous replication in a cell. Commonly used as a cloning vector.
Small, circular piece of DNA in a bacterium. Plasmids are separate from the bacterium's main body of DNA, which is contained in a single chromosome. Plasmids can be passed between bacteria, and often encode a certain trait, such as antibiotic resistance.
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
a circular DNA molecule that replicates independently from the host chromosome
a circular, double-stranded DNA sequence that replicates in bacteria and is separate from the bacterial chromosome
a circular, extrachromosomal DNA
a circular loop of DNA found in prokaryotic cells (like those of bacteria)
a circular loop of DNA that needs a host cell to replicate (like viruses) but does not destroy the host
a circular section of DNA which can be inserted into a cell
a extrachromosomal DNA molecule
a free-floating piece of DNA which is able to pass through another bacteria's outer cell wall
a molecular biological tool that allows any segment of DNA in be put into a carrier cell (usually a bacterial cell) and replicated to produce more of it
an exemplary vector
an extra-chromosomal element, often a circular DNA
an extra-chromosomal genetic element -- a small amount of DNA, usually in circular form, that can exist in microorganisms independently of a chromosome
an extrachromosomal genetic element that can stably function and replicate
an extra-chromosomal loop of DNA in a bacterium
an independent, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule that carries only a few genes
a piece of DNA, usually in the form of a circle, found inside bacterial cells
a ring of extrachromosomal DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria
a secondary ring of DNA, containing genes that make anthrax toxic
a selfcontained section of DNA, almost always in ring form, that is not an integrated part of an organisms genome
a small accessory ring of DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria
a "small autonomously replicating circular molecule of DNA that is devoid of protein and not essential for the survival of its host"
a smaller circular bit of DNA much smaller than the circular bacterial main chromosome
a small, independent piece of genetic material that does not use the same mechanisms as the host chromosome to maintain itself
a small ring of DNA found in many bacteria
a small stretch of DNA that is found in many bacteria
a strand or loop of DNA material that exists independently of the chromosome in bacteria and yeast
a structure in cells consisting of DNA that can exist and replicate independently of the chromosomes
a unit of DNA that can replicate in a cell apart from the nucleus
circular piece of bacterial DNA that is not part of the genomic DNA
A small piece of DNA that grows inside a bacterial cell. Plasmids are used as vehicles that carry non-bacterial DNA within the bacteria.
small, independently replicating, piece of extra chromosomal cytoplasmic DNA that can be transferred from one organism to another.
small, naturally occurring, auxiliary pieces of genetic material which can be more easily manipulated and transferred between species than can chromosomal DNA
A DNA molecule that can replicate independently of the chromosome; often used in cell regulation
Double stranded, circular DNA molecule found in bacteria and some fungi. Size range from ~5 - 200kbp, contains genes which may be useful to host, but are not essential. Plasmids can be eliminated from bacterial populations by growth under selective conditions ("curing"). Carry an origin of replication ( ori ) which allows replication in a specific host species. Plasmids used in recombinant DNA work are generally smaller than 10kbp in size and have a copy number of up to 500/cell depending on plasmid type.
An autonomously replicating DNA element, separate from the chromosome. These units, which occur only in bacteria, can be used as vectors of small (up to about 10 kb) fragments of foreign DNA. See also Kilobase (kb).
a circular segment of DNA that encodes a separate set of genes than those present in chromosomes. Plasmids are most often found in bacteria, but they are also useful to scientists as vectors.
A circular DNA molecule capable of replication in bacteria. Plasmids are the usual means of propagation of DNA for transfection or other purposes.
A fragment of genetic material, generally circular, that can be passed from one microorganism to another. An accessory DNA element is not essential for growth and which has no extracellular form.
A DNA structure that is separate from the cell's genome and can replicate independently of the host cell. Plasmids are used in the laboratory to deliver specific DNA sequences into a cell.
A piece of parasitic genetic material found in a cell that can propagate itself using the cell's energetic resources.
A circular piece of DNA found in bacteria that is capable of replicating independently. Plasmids are often used as cloning vectors to carry and express genes because they are easy to manipulate.
A small, circular DNA molecule. Bacteria can have plasmids in addition to the DNA of the main chromosome. Foreign DNA can be added to plasmids. The modified plasmid then transports the DNA into a new cell.
A class of circular extrachromosomal elements found in many bacteria. Contain origins of replication to ensure their maintenance. Often modified for use in gene cloning or to alter the characteristics of the bacteria.
a circular piece of DNA which may reproduce separately from chromosomal DNA within cells or bacteria.
A small, usually circular piece of DNA found in bacteria but separate from the bacterial chromosome. Plasmids are important tools in genetic research and are often used to create, and sometimes insert, the genetic modifications.
A small, circular piece of DNA found outside the chromosome in bacteria. Plasmids are the principal tools for inserting new genetic information into microorganisms or plants.
A piece of bacterial DNA that is independent of the bacterium's main chromosome.
A small ring of DNA found in bacterial cells. It contains genes that are additional to the genes carried on the bacterial chromosome. Some eukaryotic cells, like yeasts may also have plasmids.
A circular piece of DNA that exists apart from the chromosome and replicates independently of it. Bacterial plasmids carry information that renders the bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Plasmids are often used in genetic engineering to carry desired genes into organisms.
A circular piece of DNA present in bacteria or isolated from bacteria. Escherichia coli, the usual bacteria in molecular genetics experiments, has a large circular genome, but it will also replicate smaller circular DNAs as long as they have an "origin of replication". Plasmids may also have other DNA inserted by the investigator. A bacterium carrying a plasmid and replicating a million-fold will produce a million identical copies of that plasmid. Common plasmids are pBR322, pGEM, pUC18.
a piece of genetic material that exists outside the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Genetically engineered plasmids are often used in biotechnology.
A small circular form of DNA that carries certain genes and is capable of replicating independently in a host cell.
a small, independently replicating circle of DNA, found in bacteria, that can be transferred from one organism to another during certain types of mating.
a ring of DNA that replicates on its own and is usually found in bacteria; plasmids can be used to transfect (see below) cells with desired genes.
A circular piece of DNA found outside the chromosome in bacteria. Plasmids are the principle tool for inserting new genetic information into microbes or plants.
ring of "extra" DNA found outside the nucleus in many single-celled organisms
small circular DNA molecule found in bacteria. Some plasmids encode one or more antibiotic resistant genes
an extrachromosomal ring of DNA, especially of bacterial origin, that replicates autonomously.
A circular DNA molecule, found in bacteria. Plasmids can be exchanged between two different bacteria. Implicated in resistance to Antibiotics. They can be used to genetically engineer bacteria and to cause the bacteria to produce novel proteins.
A small, circular DNA molecule that acts like a miniature chromosome that is often used for the insertion of foreign DNA.
Circular loop of DNA in prokaryotes. Eukaryotic DNA is organized into chromosomes.
DNA, or sometimes RNA, molecules which occur in cells separately to the chromosal DNA. They occur in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, often in the cytoplasm. Plasmids are important in genetic engineering, as they can , with appropriate treatment of the cells, be inserted into cells from different species to that from which the plasmid was isolated. Plasmids are easily manipulated to have pieces of DNA inserted and/or removed using modern techniques of biotechnology.
Français] A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector in the transfer of genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host.
Autonomously replicating, extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and nonessential for cell survival under nonselective conditions. Some plasmids are capable of integrating into the host genome. A number of artificially constructed plasmids are used as cloning vectors.
a structure composed of DNA that is separate from the cell's genome. In bacteria, plasmids confer a variety of traits and can be exchanged between individuals- even those of different species. Plasmids can be manipulated in the laboratory to deliver specific genetic sequences into a cell.
An autonomously replicating, extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecule, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and not essential for cell survival under nonselective conditions.
A small, circular piece of DNA found in bacteria and yeasts that is able to replicate independently of the chromosome. Plasmids are usually circular molecules of DNA.
They accommodate various sizes of foreign DNA fragments ranging from 12,000 bp for bacterial vectors (plasmids and cosmids) to ... (IOOakRidge) Plasmídeo... geralmente acompanhado de uma ou duas pequenas outras moléculas também circulares e de fita dupla, os plasmídeos. (POPrGenoma)
A small circular DNA molecule found in bacteria that replicates independently of the chromosome. Plasmids are used as cloning vectors.
Mostly autonomously replicating, extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacteria genome and nonessential for cell survival under nonselective conditions. Synthetic plasmids are used as cloning vectors.
Autonomously replicating extrachromosomal DNA molecule.
is an extrachromosomal circular DNA.
A small circular piece of DNA in bacteria that resembles the bacterial circular chromosome, but is dispensable. Some bacterial strains contain many plasmids and some contain none. Plasmids are often used in genetic engineering as cloning vectors.
Autonomous self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecule.
Small circular DNA molecules that replicate independently of the genome. Plasmids are often used as vectors for DNA cloning.
DNA and/or RNA that is not a part of the chromosome, but is replicated and inherited at cell division. Plasmids are generally found in yeast and bacteria.
A circular, double-stranded unit of DNA that replicates within a cell independently of the chromosomal DNA.
In many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: a linear or covalently closed circular molecule of DNA, (distinct from chromosomal DNA, mtDNA, ctDNA, or kDNA and commonly dispensable to the cell), that can replicate autonomously (i.e., independently of other replicons). ( 16)
Extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule found in most bacteria. Plasmids can pass from cell to cell and carry genes, which confer various properties on the host cells, such as resistance to antibiotics. Recombinant plasmids containing DNA segments of interest are used as vectors or cloning vehicles in genetic engineering. They are very small (3000 base pairs) in comparison to whole chromosomes, allowing them to act as effective gene shuttles.
A plasmid is a DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA and capable of autonomous replication. It is typically circular and double-stranded. It usually occurs in bacteria, sometimes in eukaryotic organisms (e.g., the 2-micrometre-ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).