The hard stratum of earth that lies below the soil. See Hard pan, under Hard.
A compact, dense layer in a soil that impedes the movement of water and growth of roots. For example, hardpan, fragipan, claypan, plowpan, and traffic pan.
A compacted or cemented soil horizon Cementation may be effected by iron hydroxides, organic material SiO CaCO or other substances. Syn . Hardpan. Cf . Ortstein. ( BCFT ).
A hard, distinct soil layer caused by the precipitation of iron or other compounds.
A hard, impervious layer beneath the soil's surface that prevents the drainage of water Perennial s / Herbaceous Plants Plants which continue to live and increase in the open for several years. Stems die down each season and grow up again from the crowns each Spring. Sow in greenhouse in March or in open in April, May or June
A hardened and/or cemented horizon in or below the soil profile.