Replacing not that bad Rule by Aristocracy by the rule of the murderously jealous middle class. For 'the poor' introducing the myths 'liberty' and 'justice'. (see ' Enlightenment')
the revolution in France against the Bourbons; 1789-1799
began in France in 1789 and led to a conflict which engulfed all of Western Europe and lasted until 1815 (the Napoleonic Wars). The French Revolution provided the world with its first meaningful experience with political ideology. The Revolution had at its origin, a legal debate between the monarchy and the aristocracy over the financing of the state (France was nearly bankrupt after sending monetary support to the American Revolutionaries). In rhetoric, the French Revolution proclaimed the liberty of the individual and private property through its Declaration of the Rights of Man and its slogan "Liberty, Fraternity and Equality". Aristocratic privileges were abolished, church and aristocratic lands were confiscated and internal obstacles to trade and commerce were removed so that the middle class had greater economic and socially mobility. These societal changes arose after many years of bloody fighting and the death of much of France's nobility and aristocracy.
The rebellion, 1789, that eventually overthrew the French Monarchy for a republic, which was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe. (p. 700)
The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based around Enlightenment ideals of democracy, citizenship, and inalienable rights. These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil, including mass executions and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power.