An association is defined as a climax community of which the dominant stratum has a qualitatively uniform floristic composition and which exhibits uniform structure as a whole. For each stratum, the association description of the vegetation type should include floristic information for the dominant and/or diagnostic species (maximum of 3 species per stratum) plus the structural formation (dominant growth form, cover, height are combined as per Table 4). A maximum of three strata (upper, mid and ground;Walker & Hopkins (1990)) are allowed and the dominant stratum is indicated by a plus symbol "+". NVIS Level V. Beadle and Costin, 1952 NVIS
For more information see Classification of Ecological Communities .
a collection of plants with ecologically similar requirements, including one or more dominant species from which the group derives a definite character.
(ecology) a group of organisms (plants and animals) that live together in a certain geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species
When two or more minerals occur on the same specimen. The epitome of association would be a topaz crystal growning on a quartz crystal, on a feldspar crystal. Of more interest to collectors than specimens showing solitary species.
Plant communities which have (i) the same structural characteristics, (ii) the same species as dominants in the uppermost stratum, though (iii) possibly different floristic composition in the lower stratum (see Specht et al. 1974). An association is a subset of an alliance (see above).
A special or distinctive combination of two or more plant species that develop wherever ecologically equivalent habitats occur.
An association is the "ultimate classification level" of ecological systems. Local conditions permit several understory species to coexist with the same overstory dominants, and associations refer to the many co-occurring species rather than just the few dominant ones.