Definitions for

**"Summation"**Process of addition of separate postsynaptic responses caused by stimuli that are adjacent in time and space. Excitation of a synapse evokes a graded potential change in the postsynaptic membrane that may be below the threshold required to trigger an impulse. If two or more such potentials are caused either nearly simultaneously, at different synapses on the same neurone (spatial summation), or in rapid succession at the same synapse (temporal summation), the summed response may be sufficient to trigger a postsynaptic impulse. Summation may occur between excitatory potentials, inhibitory potentials, or between an excitatory and an inhibitory potential

algebraic addition of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of all stimuli applied simultaneously to a nerve cell body (spatial); increased strength of muscle contraction resulting when stimuli occur in rapid succession (temporal)

The ability of a neuron to fire action potentials in response to numerous subthreshold postsynaptic potentials arriving simultaneously at differentiated places on the cell, or arriving at the same site in rapid succession.

The last part of a trial where both lawyers recap the respective positions of their clients

An attorney's concluding argument at a trial's end, where the client's position is persuasively summed up to convince a judge and/or jury to decide in the client's favor.

a concluding summary (as in presenting a case before a law court)

The act of summing, or forming a sum, or total amount; also, an aggregate.

the final aggregate; "the sum of all our troubles did not equal the misery they suffered"

the arithmetic operation of summing; calculating the sum of two or more numbers; "the summation of four and three gives seven"; "four plus three equals seven"

a mathematical formula that saves mathematicians time by expressing a sequence of calculations in a condensed format

a functional module if all the summands are functional modules and a system module otherwise